Everything you need to know about REST

Watch the video explanation ➔

Is REST all about just exposing an HTTP endpoint?

REST is an abbreviation that stands for Representational State Transfer. A lot of complex words but stick with me.

REST is a specification that suggests how a client should demand/request information from the server and how the server should respond; it does not enforce anything.

Everything is a Resource

In REST, everything is a resource. Any actionable entity in your application eg: book, student, customer, or order is a resource for REST. The client can demand action on a resource like get, create, delete, or update.

REST does not put any restriction on how the data is stored in your application, but it allows clients to specify how it wants the data from the server eg: XML, JSON, CSV, etc. So long as the server supports the representation the server would respond in the demanded format.

Underlying Protocol for REST

REST does not enforce any restriction on the underlying protocol to be used. All it cares about is that we have a defined way to act on a resource. So, we can implement REST over HTTP or even hardware like USB.

Why REST over HTTP?

The most common implementation of REST is over HTTP and it gels very well together. Why so?

HTTP has verbs like GET, POST, DELETE, and PUT and these become actions on our resource. The resource is specified by the URL of the HTTP request. For example, to get a student’s details whose id = 1 we fire

GET /students/1

We are representing the student with id = 1 using the URL /students/1 and are specifying action GET using the HTTP verb GET. Similarly to update the student with id = 1 we could

POST /students/1

Here we see how REST is resource-oriented and we have a way to specify the action to be taken on it.

Existing tooling

One very important reason why HTTP is so commonly used in implementation is the availability of existing tooling. We can reuse the existing set of tools to get the job done, which includes.

  • using existing HTTP Clients like Postman, cURL, Requests
  • use caches like Ngnix, HA Proxy, and Varnish to boost performance
  • use monitoring tools like Distributed Tracing
  • use load balancers to uniformly distribute the load
  • use SSL to get out-of-the-box security

Downsides of doing REST over HTTP

  • all clients would have to serialize and deserialize the HTTP body
  • all clients would have to repetitively handle failures and retries
  • some web servers might not support verbs like PUT, DELETE
  • HTTP payloads are JSON and hence huge
  • HTTP would not support switching underlying protocols

Here's the video ⤵

Courses

Super practical courses, with a no-nonsense approach, are designed to spark engineering curiosity and help you ace your career.


System Design for Beginners

An in-depth, self-paced, and on-demand course that for early engineers to become great at designing scalable, available, and extensible systems at scale.

Details →

System Design Masterclass

A masterclass that helps experienced engineers become great at designing scalable, fault-tolerant, and highly available systems.

Details →

Redis Internals

A course that helps covers Redis internals by reimplementing its core features like - event loop, serialization protocol, pipelining, eviction, and transactions.

Details →



Writings and Videos

Videos

Essays and Blogs


Arpit's Newsletter read by 38000+ engineers

Weekly essays on real-world system design, distributed systems, or a deep dive into some super-clever algorithm.