DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol



DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

An IP address is the identity of a host or a computer device while connected to any network. When you connect your computer to a LAN or internet, the IP address and other information like subnet mask etc are assigned to your computer automatically.

DHCP is used to control the network configuration of a host through a remote server. It is an excellent alternative to the time-consuming manual configuration of network settings on a host or a network device.

How it works?

DHCP works on a client-server model. Being a protocol, it has it’s own set of messages that are exchanged between client and server.

DHCP

DHCP Steps

  1. When the client computer (or device) boots up or is connected to a network, a DHCPDISCOVER message is sent from the client to the server. As there is no network configuration information on the client so the message is sent with 0.0.0.0 as source address and 255.255.255.255 as destination address. The transport protocol used for this message is UDP and the port number used is 67. The client enters the initializing stage during this step.
  2. When the DHCP server receives the DHCPDISCOVER request message then it replies with a DHCPOFFER message. This message contains all the network configuration settings required by the client. This message is sent as a broadcast (255.255.255.255) message for the client to receive it. UDP protocol is used at the transport layer with destination port as 68.
  3. The client forms a DHCPREQUEST message in reply to DHCPOFFER message and sends it to the server indicating it wants to accept the network configuration sent in the DHCPOFFER message. The DHCPREQUEST message will still contain the source address as 0.0.0.0 as the client is still not allowed to use the IP address passed to it through DHCPOFFER message.
  4. Once the server receives DHCPREQUEST from the client, it sends the DHCPACK message indicating that now the client is allowed to use the IP address assigned to it.

DHCP Lease

A DHCP lease is the amount of time that the DHCP server grants to the DHCP client permission to use a particular IP address. A typical server allows its administrator to set the lease time.

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